Abstract: The mountain forests of the Northwestern Caucasus represent unique refugia for the native biodiversity of flora and fauna. Endemic species are also preserved among soil invertebrates, including the group of earthworms, which are important ecosystem engineers. This study assesses the spatial distribution of the endemic anecic species of earthworms Dendrobaena nassonovi nassonovi Kulagin, 1889 in deciduous, coniferous–deciduous, small-leaved, and conifer forests of the Northwestern Caucasus (a total of 1028 geographical points were surveyed, of which the species was found in 185 points) based on our own field data by modeling the current potential areas using the Maxent software. The D. n. nassonovi potential area maps show a high probability of the species inhabiting mid- and high-mountain forests of the Northwestern Caucasus and being confined to mixed coniferous–deciduous and beech forests. The optimum soil and climatic parameters, as well as a lack of large-scale business operations in the mid- and high-mountain forests, make it possible for these ecosystems to remain suitable refugia, in particular for the endemic anecic species of Caucasus earthworms D. n. nassonovi.